Relative Pronouns ( Pronoms relatifs ), Interrogative Pronouns ( Pronoms interrogatifs), Intensive Pronouns ( Intensive Pronouns )

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Lesson Notes: Relative Pronouns ( Pronoms relatifs ), Interrogative Pronouns ( Pronoms interrogatifs), Intensive Pronouns ( Intensive Pronouns ) [PDF] Free – Uganda students who are preparing for their UNEB UCE can download Relative Pronouns ( Pronoms relatifs ), Interrogative Pronouns ( Pronoms interrogatifs), Intensive Pronouns ( Intensive Pronouns ) [PDF] from this page.

Here, you will find a Lesson Notes: Relative Pronouns ( Pronoms relatifs ), Interrogative Pronouns ( Pronoms interrogatifs), Intensive Pronouns ( Intensive Pronouns ). Download them and use them as a tool for revision.

In Uganda, students receive the Uganda Certificate of Education (UCE) when they finish the four years of lower secondary school. It is comparable to GCE O-Level in the UK. UCE is also called “O-Level” by the people in Uganda. The UCE examinations are administered by the Uganda National Examinations Board (UNEB)

Relative Pronouns ( Pronoms relatifs )

A clause is a group of words that contains a verb, The clause modifies, or describes the noun.
Une proposition est un groupe de mot organisé autour d’un verbe
A relative pronoun is a type of pronoun used to connect a relative clause to the main clause in a sentence.
Relative clauses either help clarify who or what a sentence is talking about (known as the antecedent), or else give extra information about it.
Here are the five most commonly used relative pronouns:

That, which, who, whom, whose

Functions of the relative pronoun
In a relative clause, the relative pronoun functions in one of three ways: as the subject, the object, or a possessive pronoun
le pronom relatif fonctionne de trois manières: en tant que sujet, complément ou pronom possessif
The usage of a relative pronoun ultimately depends on its antecedent and the relative clause it introduces.
We can use this table as a quick guide:

Type of Antecedent Subject ObjectPossessive
PeopleWho Who / Whom Whose
Things WhichWhichWhose
People or ThingsThatThat

Let’s look at how each of these can be used in a sentence:
a) Subject ( Sujet )
• The woman who came to my house was a salesperson.
La femme qui est venue chez moi Ă©tait une vendeuse.
Who is the subject of the relative clause who came to my house, which describes the antecedent the woman.
• The male birds danced and sang, which attracted nearby females.
Les oiseaux mâles dansaient et chantaient, ce qui attirait les femelles à proximité.
Which is the subject of the non-restrictive relative clause which attracted nearby females that describes the antecedent danced and sang.
• I have to go mend the fence that is broken.
Je dois aller réparer la clôture qui est cassée.
That is the subject of the restrictive relative clause that is broken, describing the antecedent the fence.
• I want a computer which can download a lot of games.
Je veux un ordinateur capable de télécharger de nombreux jeux.
Which is the subject of the relative clause which can download a lot of games and describes the antecedent a computer.

b) Object ( ComplĂ©ment )
• I don’t know if I passed the test that I took yesterday.
Je ne sais pas si j’ai réussi le test que j’ai passé hier.
That is the object of relative clause that I took yesterday and describes the antecedent the test.
• The new employee whom I hired is a dedicated worker.
Le nouvel employĂ© que j’ai embauchĂ© est un travailleur dĂ©vouĂ©.
Whom is the object of the relative clause whom I hired and describes the antecedent the new employee.

c) Possession
The relative pronoun whose is unique in that it is the only one that can describe possession. It comes before a noun in a sentence, modifying it like an adjective to indicate that it belongs to the antecedent.
Le pronom relatif « whose » est unique en ce qu’il est le seul qui puisse dĂ©crire la possession. Il vient avant un nom dans une phrase, le modifiant comme un adjectif pour indiquer qu’il appartient Ă  l’antĂ©cĂ©dent.
• She tried to help the student whose lunch money had been stolen.
Elle a essayĂ© d’aider l’Ă©tudiant Ă  qui l’argent du dĂ©jeuner avait Ă©tĂ© volĂ©.
Whose modifies lunch money and introduces the relative clause whose lunch money had been stolen, which describes the antecedent the student.

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Substituting relative pronouns (Substituer les pronoms relatifs )
Most relative pronouns are capable of multiple functions and usages, meaning they can be used in place of one another in certain circumstances.
La plupart des pronoms relatifs ont des usages multiples, ce qui signifie qu’ils peuvent ĂŞtre utilisĂ©s les uns Ă  la place autres dans certaines circonstances.
The table below gives a quick breakdown of when it is acceptable to use each relative pronoun:
Le tableau ci-dessous donne un aperçu rapide du moment oĂą il est acceptable d’utiliser chaque pronom relatif:

Can be used…
Peut ĂŞtre utilisĂ© …
As a subject?
comme sujet?
As an object?
En tant que complément?
As a possessive?
En tant que possessif?
To describe things?
Pour décrire les choses?
To describe people?
Pour décrire les personnes?
who âś”âś”
(informal)
âś–âś– âś”
whomâś–âś”
(formal)
âś–âś– âś”
whoseâś–âś– âś” âś” âś”
which âś” âś”âś– âś”âś–
that âś” âś”âś– âś” âś”

Interrogative Pronouns ( Pronoms interrogatifs)

Interrogative pronouns are used in interrogative sentences to ask questions.
Les pronoms interrogatifs sont utilisés dans les phrases interrogatives pour poser des questions.
There are five primary interrogative pronouns:
Il existe cinq pronoms interrogatifs primaires:

who, whom, whose, which, and what.

pronons interrogatifsMost often, interrogative pronouns are used in direct questions, representing the person or thing that is being asked about. In direct questions, the interrogative pronoun usually comes at or near the beginning of the interrogative clause, acting as either the subject or object of the sentence.
Le plus souvent, les pronoms interrogatifs sont utilisĂ©s dans les questions directes, ils peuvent reprĂ©senter une personne ou une chose pour laquelle la question est posĂ©e. Dans les questions directes, le pronom interrogatif vient gĂ©nĂ©ralement au dĂ©but de la phrase, agissant soit comme sujet, soit comme complĂ©ment d’objet.

• “Who is coming to the party tonight?” (subject)
Qui vient Ă  la fĂŞte ce soir?
• “Whom did you ask to fill in for Mr. Smith?” (object)
À qui avez-vous demandé de remplacer M. Smith?
• “Whose is this computer?” (subject)
Ă€ qui appartient cet ordinateur?
• “What do you expect me to do, exactly?” (object)
Qu’attendez-vous que je fasse exactement?

An interrogative pronoun is easy to identify because it can stand on its own in a sentence and takes the grammatical function of a noun.
Un pronom interrogatif est facile Ă  identifier car il prend la fonction grammaticale d’un nom.
Other question words, on the other hand, act as adverbs when they stand alone, as in:

• “How did you find me?” (How modifies the verb find.)
• “When are we leaving?” (When modifies the verb leaving.)
• “Why did we stay?” (Why modifies the verb stay.)

Indirect questions are sometimes used to ask something in a more polite way
Les questions indirectes sont parfois utilisées pour poser des questions de manière plus polie
Interrogative pronouns can also appear within indirect questions. When this happens, they appear in the middle of the sentence.
Les pronoms interrogatifs peuvent également apparaître dans les questions indirectes. Lorsque cela se produit, ils apparaissent au milieu de la phrase.

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• “Could you tell me whose these are?”
• “Would you mind telling me which I’m supposed to bring?”
• “Do you know what we’re doing here?”
Other times, indirect questions are used for emphasis to convey surprise:
• “She wants who to come to the party?”
• “You’re going to do what in New York City?”
• “He’s going to ask whom out on a date?”

Reported questions are actually a form of declarative sentences using reported speech 
Les questions rapportĂ©es sont en fait une forme de phrases dĂ©claratives utilisant un discours rapportĂ© 
Interrogative pronouns also appear in the middle of reported questions. they tell us about something someone else asked, but do not ask a question themselves. As such, they do not end in a question mark.
Les pronoms interrogatifs apparaissent Ă©galement au milieu des questions rapportĂ©es. ils nous parlent de quelque chose que quelqu’un d’autre a demandĂ©, mais ne posent pas de question eux-mĂŞmes. En tant que tels, ils ne se terminent pas par un point d’interrogation.

• “She wants to know whose these are.”
• “He wondered which is correct.”
• “I asked you what we were supposed to do today.”
• “She was wondering who would be coming tomorrow.”
• “They asked whom to consult in the matter.”

Intensive Pronouns ( Intensive Pronouns )

Reflexive pronouns end in -self- or -selves- and refer back to a noun or pronoun that has been mentioned earlier in the sentence. The following is a list of reflexive pronouns: (Les pronoms rĂ©flexifs se terminent par «self» ou «selves» et renvoient Ă  un nom ou un pronom qui a Ă©tĂ© mentionnĂ© plus tĂ´t dans la phrase. Voici la liste de pronoms rĂ©flexifs:)

myself, himself, herself, itself, yourself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves. (moi-mĂŞme, lui-mĂŞme, elle-mĂŞme, lui-mĂŞme, vous-mĂŞme, nous-mĂŞmes, eux-mĂŞmes.)

In the following sentences the underlined words are reflexive pronouns: ( Dans les phrases suivantes, les mots coloriĂ©s sont des pronoms rĂ©flexifs: )

• I cut myself with the breadknife. ( • Je me suis coupĂ© avec le couteau Ă  pain.)
• You will have to wash yourself in cold water. (Vous devrez vous laver Ă  l’eau froide.)
• He sees himself becoming a lawyer. ( Il se voit devenir avocat. )
• The cat was licking itself. ( Le chat se lĂ©chait. )
• The town’s inhabitants braced themselves for the storm. ( Les habitants de la ville se sont prĂ©parĂ©s Ă  la tempĂŞte. )

Reflexive pronouns can also be used for emphasis, as in the following sentences: ( Les pronoms rĂ©flexifs peuvent Ă©galement ĂŞtre utilisĂ©s pour l’accentuation, comme dans les phrases suivantes: )

• The town itself is not very attractive, but the surrounding countryside is beautiful. ( La ville elle-mĂŞme n’est pas très attrayante, mais la campagne environnante est magnifique. )
• The headmaster himself decided on the boys’ punishment. ( Le directeur lui-mĂŞme a dĂ©cidĂ© de la punition des garçons. )
• We ourselves must provide the funding for the project. ( Nous devons nous-mĂŞmes fournir le financement du projet. )

Reflexive pronouns which are used, as above, for emphasis are sometimes known as emphatic pronouns. ( Les pronoms rĂ©flexifs qui sont utilisĂ©s, comme ci-dessus, pour l’emphase sont parfois appelĂ©s pronoms emphatiques. )
When we use an intensive pronoun to add emphasis to a sentence, we generally place it after either its antecedent or the direct object of the verb. For instance: ( Lorsque nous utilisons un pronom intensif pour mettre l’accent sur une phrase, nous le plaçons gĂ©nĂ©ralement après son antĂ©cĂ©dent ou l’objet direct du verbe. Par exemple: )

•  The surgeon general himself will oversee the operation. ( Le chirurgien gĂ©nĂ©ral supervisera lui-mĂŞme l’opĂ©ration )
•  They themselves indicated that the transactions might be illegal. ( Ils ont eux-mĂŞmes indiquĂ© que les transactions pouvaient ĂŞtre illĂ©gales )
•  He did it himself, much to his father’s surprise. ( Il l’a fait lui-mĂŞme, Ă  la grande surprise de son père )
•  We designed the album artwork ourselves. ( Nous avons conçu nous-mĂŞmes la pochette de l’album. )

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If we use an intensive pronoun to add a pointed or argumentative emphasis to the sentence, it comes after the direct object, as in: ( Si nous utilisons un pronom intensif pour ajouter une emphase Ă  la phrase, il vient après l’objet direct, comme dans: )

•  I can operate the TV remote myself, thank you very much. ( Je peux utiliser la tĂ©lĂ©commande du tĂ©lĂ©viseur moi-mĂŞme, merci beaucoup )
•  Our son can do the project himself, Hank. ( Notre fils peut faire le projet lui-mĂŞme, Hank )

Reflexive pronouns can also be used to indicate that someone has done something alone without the help of anyone else, as in: ( Les pronoms rĂ©flexifs peuvent Ă©galement ĂŞtre utilisĂ©s pour indiquer que quelqu’un a fait quelque chose seul sans l’aide de d’une tiers personne, comme dans: )

The bride made that beautiful dress herself. ( La mariĂ©e a fait cette belle robe elle-mĂŞme. )
The young couple are planning to build the house themselves. ( Le jeune couple envisage de construire lui-mĂŞme la maison. )
I’m sure that he did not write that book himself. ( Je suis sĂ»r qu’il n’a pas Ă©crit ce livre lui-mĂŞme. )

Intensive pronouns are identical to reflexive pronouns. However, intensive pronouns do not serve a grammatical function in a sentence; instead, they add emphasis by reiterating the subject of the sentence (known as the pronoun’s antecedent). ( Les pronoms intensifs sont identiques aux pronoms rĂ©flexifs. Cependant, les pronoms intensifs ne remplissent pas une fonction grammaticale dans une phrase; au lieu de cela, ils ajoutent de l’accent en rĂ©pĂ©tant le sujet de la phrase (connu sous le nom d’antĂ©cĂ©dent du pronom). )

Distinguishing between intensive and reflexive pronouns ( Distinction les pronoms intensifs et rĂ©flexifs )
• Reflexive pronouns are used when the subject of a sentence also receives the action of the sentence, the subject of the verb is also the object the same verb. ( Les pronoms rĂ©flexifs sont utilisĂ©s lorsque le sujet d’une phrase reçoit Ă©galement l’action de la phrase, le sujet du verbe est aussi l’objet du mĂŞme verbe )

• I saw myself in the mirror. ( Je me suis vu dans le miroir. )
• She asked herself if it was worth the hassle. ( Elle s’est demandĂ© si cela valait la peine. )
• The actor played himself in the film about his life. ( L’acteur s’est jouĂ© dans le film sur sa vie. )

• we use an intensive pronoun if we want to place special emphasis on who is performing the action of the subject on a separate object. ( nous utilisons un pronom intensif si nous voulons mettre un accent particulier sur celui qui exĂ©cute l’action du sujet sur un objet sĂ©parĂ©. )

• John played the tuba. ( • John a joué du tuba. )
• John played the tuba himself. ( John a jouĂ© du tuba lui-mĂŞme. )

However, by adding the intensive pronoun himself in the second sentence, we let the reader or listener know that it is somehow remarkable or noteworthy that it was John who played the tuba, as opposed to someone else. ( En ajoutant le pronom intensif lui-mĂŞme dans la deuxième phrase, nous faisons savoir au lecteur ou Ă  l’auditeur qu’il est en quelque sorte remarquable ou remarquable que ce soit John qui ait jouĂ© du tuba, par opposition Ă  quelqu’un d’autre. )

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