Lesson Notes: Verbs (Verbes) [PDF] Free

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Lesson Notes: Verbs (Verbes) [PDF] Free – Uganda students who are preparing for their UNEB UCE can download Verbs (Verbes) [PDF] from this page.

Here, you will find a Lesson Notes: Verbs (Verbes). Download them and use them as a tool for revision.

In Uganda, students receive the Uganda Certificate of Education (UCE) when they finish the four years of lower secondary school. It is comparable to GCE O-Level in the UK. UCE is also called “O-Level” by the people in Uganda. The UCE examinations are administered by the Uganda National Examinations Board (UNEB)

Verbs (Verbes) [PDF] free download

Verbs are action words. they express state of being. Verbs are used to indicate the actions, processes, conditions, or states of beings of people or things.
Les verbes sont des mots d’action. ils expriment un Ă©tat. Les verbes sont utilisĂ©s pour indiquer les actions, les processus, les conditions ou les Ă©tats, des personnes ou des choses.
Verbs play an integral role to the structure of a sentence. They constitute the root of the predicate, which, along with the subject, forms a full sentence.we cannot have a sentence without a verb.
Les verbes jouent un rĂ´le essentiel dans la structure d’une phrase. Ils constituent la racine du prĂ©dicat, qui, avec le sujet, forme une phrase complète. On ne peut pas avoir une phrase sans verbe.

a) Finite and Non-Finite Verbs

When we discuss verbs’ role in the predicate, we usually divide them into two fundamental categories:
Lorsque nous étudions le rôle des verbes dans le prédicat, nous les divisons généralement en deux catégories fondamentales:
• Finite verbs
A finite verb is a form of a verb that has a subject (expressed or implied) and can function as the root of an independent clause;

She reads many books.

• Non-finite verbs.
A non-finite verb is a verb form that does not show tense. In other words, you cannot tell if a sentence is in the past tense, present tense, or future tense by looking at a non-finite verb. Therefore, a non-finite verb is never the main verb in a sentence. (That’s a finite verb.) There are three types of non-finite verbs:
Verb forms that are never considered finite are gerunds, infinitives, and participles (both past and present).

He begged to play.

Every verb is classed as being either transitive or intransitive.

b) Transitive and Intransitive Verbs

Transitive verbs describe an action that is happening to someone or something. This person or thing is known as the direct object of the verb.
Les verbes transitifs dĂ©crivent une action qui arrive Ă  quelqu’un ou Ă  quelque chose. Cette personne ou cette chose est connue comme l’objet direct du verbe.

• He’s reading a book.
Il est en train de lire un livre.
The action of reading is happening to the book.
L’action de lecture arrive au livre.
• I was eating a delicious steak for dinner last night.
Je mangeais un délicieux steak pour le dîner hier soir.
The action of eating is happening to a delicious steak.

c) Regular and Irregular Verbs

A regular verb is any verb whose conjugation follows the typical pattern, or one of the typical patterns, of the language to which it belongs. Most verbs are regular verbs, which means that â€ś-d” or “-ed” can be added to their base form (the infinitive of the verb without to) to conjugate both the past simple tense and past participle forms.
Un verbe rĂ©gulier est tout verbe dont la conjugaison suit le modèle typique, ou l’un des modèles typiques, de la langue Ă  laquelle il appartient. La plupart des verbes sont des verbes rĂ©guliers, ce qui signifie que «-d» ou «-ed» peuvent ĂŞtre ajoutĂ©s Ă  leur forme de base (l’infinitif du verbe sans to) pour conjuguer Ă  la fois le passĂ© simple et le participe passĂ©.

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Add, accept, achieve…

Irregular verbs, on the other hand, have past tense and past participle forms that do not (or do not seem to) adhere to a distinct or predictable pattern, and they are usually completely different from one another.
Les verbes irrĂ©guliers, par contre, ont des formes au passĂ© et au participe passĂ© qui n’adhèrent pas (ou ne semblent pas) Ă  un modèle distinct ou prĂ©visible, et ils sont gĂ©nĂ©ralement complètement diffĂ©rents les uns des autres.

Bet, become, bite…

d) Verb forms

Auxiliary Verbs
Auxiliary or “helping” verbs are verbs that are used to complete the meaning of other primary or “main” verbs in a sentence.
Les verbes auxiliaires sont des verbes qui sont utilisĂ©s pour complĂ©ter le sens d’autres verbes primaires ou «principaux» dans une phrase.

The three primary auxiliary verbs â€” be, have, and do — are used to create different tenses, to form negatives, or to ask questions.

• I am working on my project. (present continuous tense)
• She does not work here anymore. (negative sentence)
• Have you seen my keys? (question)

There are also modal auxiliary verbs (often just called modal verbs), which are used to express modality.
Il existe également des verbes auxiliaires modaux (souvent simplement appelés verbes modaux), qui sont utilisés pour exprimer la modalité.

These are can, could, will, would, shall, should, must, may, and might.

Infinitives are the most basic construction of a verb. When we talk of a verb as a general concept, we usually use the infinitive form, which is the uninflected base form of the verb plus the particle to.
Les infinitifs sont la construction la plus basique d’un verbe. Lorsque nous parlons d’un verbe comme d’un concept gĂ©nĂ©ral, nous utilisons gĂ©nĂ©ralement la forme infinitive, qui est la forme de base non inflĂ©chie du verbe plus la particule « to ».

to run, to walk, to read, to be, to learn, to act

Participles are forms of verbs that either function with auxiliary verbs to create the continuous and perfect verb tenses, or as adjectives to modify nouns. The present participle is always the base form of the verb + “-ing.”
Les participes sont des formes de verbes qui fonctionnent soit avec des verbes auxiliaires pour créer les temps verbaux continus et parfaits, soit comme adjectifs pour modifier les noms. Le participe présent est toujours la forme de base du verbe + «-ing».

“I was watching that.”

e) Categories of verbs

There are many different categories of verbs that describe different kinds of actions or states of being.
Il existe de nombreuses catĂ©gories de verbes qui dĂ©crivent diffĂ©rents types d’actions ou d’Ă©tats.

Action (Dynamic) Verbs
A dynamic or fientive verb is a verb that shows continued or progressive action on the part of the subject. This is the opposite of a stative verb. Action verbs (also known as dynamic verbs) describe an active process that results in an effect.
Un verbe dynamique est un verbe qui montre une action continue ou progressive de la part du sujet. C’est l’opposĂ© d’un verbe statif. Les verbes d’action (Ă©galement appelĂ©s verbes dynamiques) dĂ©crivent un processus actif qui entraĂ®ne un effet.

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• I ran to school.
• She read a book.

Stative Verbs
Stative verbs describe states of being of a subject.
These include linking verbs, such as be and verbs of the senses, which are used to describe or rename a subject using a predicative adjective or noun. A stative verb is one that describes a state of being, in contrast to a dynamic verb, which describes an action.
Ceux-ci incluent des verbes de liaison, tels que être et des verbes des sens, qui sont utilisés pour décrire ou renommer un sujet en utilisant un adjectif ou un nom prédicatif. Un verbe statif est celui qui décrit un état, contrairement à un verbe dynamique, qui décrit une action

• You sound tired.
• He seems like a bully.

Light Verbs
Light verbs do not carry unique meaning on their own, but instead rely on another word or words that follow them to become meaningful. A light verb is a verb that has little semantic content of its own and forms a predicate with some additional expression, which is usually a noun.
Les verbes lĂ©gers n’ont pas de sens unique en eux-mĂŞmes, mais s’appuient plutĂ´t sur un autre mot ou des mots qui les suivent pour devenir significatifs. Un verbe lĂ©ger est un verbe qui a peu de contenu sĂ©mantique et forme un prĂ©dicat avec une expression supplĂ©mentaire, qui est gĂ©nĂ©ralement un nom.

• Do your homework!
• Why don’t we have something to eat?

In many cases, the same light verb will have different meanings, depending on the word or words it is paired with. For instance:
Dans de nombreux cas, le même verbe léger aura des significations différentes, selon le ou les mots auxquels il est associé. Par exemple:

• Please don’t make a mess.
• Please make your bed.

Phrasal Verbs
Phrasal verbs are verbs that pair with prepositions or particles to create unique, specific meanings. These are largely idiomatic, which means that they don’t make literal sense according to their individual parts.
 Les verbes Ă  phrase sont des verbes qui s’associent avec des prĂ©positions ou des participes pour crĂ©er des significations uniques et spĂ©cifiques. Celles-ci sont en grande partie idiomatiques, ce qui signifie qu’elles n’ont pas de sens littĂ©ral selon leurs parties individuelles.
Phrasal verb is the combination of two or three words from different grammatical categories — a verb and a particle, such as an adverb or a preposition — to form a single semantic unit on a lexical or syntactic level
Le verbes Ă  phrase est la combinaison de deux ou trois mots de diffĂ©rentes catĂ©gories grammaticales – un verbe et un participe, comme un adverbe ou une prĂ©position – pour former une seule unitĂ© sĂ©mantique au niveau lexical ou syntaxique

• The plane took off an hour late.
• He has been looking after his mother.

Conditional Verbs
The term conditional verbs refers to verb constructions that are used in conditional sentences, which describe a hypothetical outcome that is reliant upon another conditional situation being true. Conditional verbs are used to create conditional sentences, which express hypothetical or unlikely situations.
Le terme verbes conditionnels fait rĂ©fĂ©rence aux constructions verbales utilisĂ©es dans les phrases conditionnelles, qui dĂ©crivent un rĂ©sultat hypothĂ©tique qui dĂ©pend du fait qu’une autre situation conditionnelle est vraie. Les verbes conditionnels sont utilisĂ©s pour crĂ©er des phrases conditionnelles, qui expriment des situations hypothĂ©tiques ou improbables.

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• If you had done your chores, you could have had an ice cream cone.
• You would get better grades if you studied harder.

Causative Verbs
Causative verbs are used to indicate that a person or thing is causing another action or an event to happen.
Les verbes causatifs sont utilisĂ©s pour indiquer qu’une personne ou une chose est Ă  l’origine d’une autre action ou d’un Ă©vĂ©nement.
Causative verbs are verbs that show the reason that something happened. They do not indicate something the subject did for themselves, but something the subject got someone or something else to do for them.
Les verbes causatifs sont des verbes qui montrent la raison pour laquelle quelque chose s’est produit. Ils n’indiquent pas quelque chose que le sujet a fait pour lui-mĂŞme, mais quelque chose que le sujet a demandĂ© Ă  quelqu’un ou Ă  quelque chose d’autre Ă  faire pour lui.

The causative verbs are: let (allow, permit), make (force, require), have, get, and help.

Factitive Verbs
Factitive verbs are used to indicate the resulting condition or state (known as the object complement) of a person, place, or thing (the direct object) caused by the action of the verb.
Les verbes factitifs sont utilisĂ©s pour indiquer la condition ou l’Ă©tat rĂ©sultant (appelĂ© complĂ©ment d’objet) d’une personne, d’un lieu ou d’une chose (l’objet direct) causĂ© par l’action du verbe.

Examples of factitive verbs include elect, appoint, make, choose, deem, assign, name, select, judge, and designate.

•  She was appointed commissioner by the mayor.
• The committee elected Mr. Fuller chairman of the board.
• The jury judged the defendant not guilty.

Reflexive Verbs
A reflexive verb is, loosely, a verb whose direct object is the same as its subject; Reflexive verbs have subjects that are also their direct objects.
Un verbe rĂ©flexif est, au sens large, un verbe dont l’objet direct est le mĂŞme que son sujet; Les verbes rĂ©flexifs ont des sujets qui sont aussi leurs objets directs.

•  I accidentally burned myself with the hairdryer.
• “The problem seems to have worked itself out in the end.


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